Fast and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is the key to managing the disease and to control and prevent transmission. Many established diagnostic methods suffer from low sensitivity or delays in timely results and inadequate for the rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in a clinical sample of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary. This study examines whether the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with a turn-a-round 2 hours, will prove effective for routine detection of MTB by clinical microbiology laboratories.
A systematic literature search conducted for publication in any language on the detection of MTB in pathological samples by RT-PCR assay. The following resources were used MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, BIOSIS Citation Index, Web of Science, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Special Register, gray literature, the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Forty-six studies met the inclusion criteria set. Summary estimate generated is collected (95% CI) were calculated for overall accuracy and meta-regression models used for bivariate meta-analysis.
Summary estimates for pulmonary TB (31 studies) were as follows: sensitivity of 0.82 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.83), specificity of 0.99 (95% CI 0.99 to 0.99), positive likelihood ratio 43.00 (28.23 to 64.81), negative likelihood ratio of 0.16 (0.12 to 0.20), the diagnostic possibilities ratio 324.26 (95% CI 189.08 to 556.09) and region under the curve 0.99. Summary estimates for extra-pulmonary TB (25 studies) were as follows: sensitivity of 0.70 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.72), specificity of 0.99 (95% CI 0.99 to 0.99), the ratio positive possibilities 29.82 (17.86 to 49.78), negative likelihood ratio of 0.33 (0.26 to 0.42), the diagnostic possibilities ratio 125.20 (95% CI 65.75 to 238.36) and area under the curve of 0.96.
RT-PCR assay showed a high degree of sensitivity for pulmonary tuberculosis and a good sensitivity for extra-pulmonary TB. It shows a high degree of specificity for TB infection of the regime in power samples. This is acceptable, but probably better as a rule out add-on diagnostic tests. RT-PCR test showed a high degree of sensitivity in both lung samples and TB detection rate is an important factor in achieving an effective global control and management of patients in terms of starting early and appropriate anti-tuberculosis therapy.
Ammonia oxidation is rate-limiting and the middle step in the global biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen. A bibliometric analysis is based on 4314 articles extracted from the Science Citation Index Expanded database conducted to provide insight into the performance of publications and research trends of the oxidation of ammonia in the period 1991-2014. The article comes from a variety of journals and 95 602 Web of Science Categories, including Environmental Science Applied and Environmental Microbiology and take the leading position, respectively. Furthermore, the co-citation analysis is done with the help of software CiteSpace clearly illustrated that the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox) three dominant research themes.
A total of 15 landmark works identified by co-citation frequency highest in every 8-year-extracted, which indicates that the establishment of a culture-independent molecular biotechnology and discovery Anammox and AOA plays the most important role in promoting the study of evolution and development of the oxidation of ammonia. Finally, the word cluster analysis further showed that the abundance of microbial communities AOA and AOB is the most prominent hotspot, with soil and high-throughput sequencing as the most promising ecosystem and molecular biotechnology.
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