Infections in the spinal cord-injured population: a systematic review.

METHOD
spinal cord injury (SCI) patients increased population due to the military conflict recently. SCI patients are at increased risk of infection, but the management of epidemiology and prevention strategy for this infection is not clear.


OBJECTIVE
To review the incidence, microbiology and management of pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), urinary tract infections (UTIs) and infections of the blood flow in the SCI population through review of the literature.

METHOD
With the help of an experienced medical librarian, we develop a search strategy for Ovid MEDLINE database and then adapted for Ovid Embase, Scopus and Web of Science database. Databases were searched from their inception until April 2014 with no restrictions on language or time period. Data were extracted using a standard form. All of the studies reviewed by two independent investigators.

RESULTS
Forty-one studies report described the infection is identified. UTI is the most common infection is identified, but the study failed to identify effective prevention strategies consistently. SSTIs are also common, and the best prevention strategy is focused on decubitus ulcer prevention protocols and skin decolonization. management of pneumonia and of course did not differ significantly from the general population. bloodstream infections associated with the delay in the recognition, and most often secondary to UTI, pneumonia or SSTI.

CONCLUSION
There is a paucity of literature on infection prevention strategies are consistently effective in patients with SCI. Identification and implementation of evidence-based interventions that optimize prevention and management of infections in this patient population is needed.

To develop the European surveillance protocols for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the national CDI surveillance system that is rated in the form of web-based electronic-2011. is provided to all European national coordinator CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of the 35 national coordinators approached, 33 of 31 European countries responded. CDI surveillance is in place in 14 of 31 countries, comprising 18 different national systems.

Three of the 14 countries with the supervision of a public health notice CDI is used as a route reporting of cases, and in three others, limited reporting on a public health notice cases of severe CDI. CDI definition published by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) which is widely used, but there are different definitions to distinguish between cases of community and health related

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